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What are the most common ear problems in cats?

What are the most common ear problems in cats?

1 Ear Mites These tiny parasites like to live in your pet’s ears. They easily make way into your cat’s ear through other animals. 2 Mange Mange mites, prefer to live on the skin around the head and ears of cats. 3 Ear Infections Ear infection, caused by yeast or bacterias is the most common issue of all the ear problems.

Why does my cat keep scratching his ear?

Ear problems in cats are a common cause of scratching and head shaking. Causes can include bacterial or fungal infection, foreign material (grass seeds), and parasites (ear mites).Continue reading to learn about the common symptoms, treatments, and prevention of ear problems in your cat.

What are the symptoms of an ear tumor in a cat?

It might affect the earwax glands, bones, tissues, muscles or middle layers of the cat’s ear. Symptoms of ear tumors in cats are itching and pain of the ears leading to ear discharge or sometimes inner ear bleeding.

When does a cat die is it a peaceful death?

3. Many cat owners think that when a cat goes off to “die” it is a peaceful death but many times (most times) it is not. Many cats will suffer for hours or even days before they die. 4. When humans die, the sense of sight is the first to go and hearing is the last.

Why did my cat die, with no symptoms of illness?

Milou was a 10-year-old spayed female indoor cat with no outward signs of illness; the only clue we had that something was amiss was that her appetite had been diminished for 2 days and she had started to hide in a room where she rarely, if ever, went. I found her this morning, and my husband picked her up to shroud her in a blanket.

3. Many cat owners think that when a cat goes off to “die” it is a peaceful death but many times (most times) it is not. Many cats will suffer for hours or even days before they die. 4. When humans die, the sense of sight is the first to go and hearing is the last.

What is the most common cause of cat death?

Heart Disease. One of the most common causes of unexpected cat death is from heart disease. There may be little to no warning signs. Cats can appear normal, hiding their symptoms well, and quickly decompensate finally showing signs of illness.

When to take your cat to the vet for an ear infection?

The latter is the most common type of ear infection in felines. Regardless of the cause of the ear infection, the signs of an ear problem usually look similar. If you notice these issues, it’s time to visit the vet: A cat with an ear infection or other ear problem will shake its head and paw at its ears.

What causes an ear infection in a dog?

Infections of the external ear canal or outer ear caused by bacteria and yeast are common in dogs but not as common in cats. Outer ear infections are called otitis externa. The most common cause of feline otitis externa is ear mite infestation.

Can a cat be resistant to an ear infection?

“Normal cats are very resistant to ear infections.”. Normal cats are very resistant to ear infections. Therefore, if a cat develops otitis externa, and especially if it recurs, it is necessary to look for an underlying cause such as an ear mite infestation, an unusual shape of the ear canal or a disease affecting the cat’s immune system.

When to get a cat in for an ear infection?

What’s essential is that you get your cat in for treatment as soon as you notice signs of ear discomfort. Ear infections can become chronic and lead to deafness and facial paralysis. What Causes Ear Infections in Cats? Generally, unless your cat has picked up mites from another animal, ear infections are a secondary condition.

Can a stray cat have an ear problem?

HGlick has rescued and placed stray cats for over 20 years and has personally kept ten rescue cats as pets over the years. Cat ear problems can change the way a cat behaves. A cat’s hearing is their best-developed attribute—they can hear higher-pitched sounds beyond the acute range of a dog.

It might affect the earwax glands, bones, tissues, muscles or middle layers of the cat’s ear. Symptoms of ear tumors in cats are itching and pain of the ears leading to ear discharge or sometimes inner ear bleeding.

Ear problems in cats are a common cause of scratching and head shaking. Causes can include bacterial or fungal infection, foreign material (grass seeds), and parasites (ear mites).Continue reading to learn about the common symptoms, treatments, and prevention of ear problems in your cat.

What’s essential is that you get your cat in for treatment as soon as you notice signs of ear discomfort. Ear infections can become chronic and lead to deafness and facial paralysis. What Causes Ear Infections in Cats? Generally, unless your cat has picked up mites from another animal, ear infections are a secondary condition.

What should I do if my cat’s ears are waxy?

If the weather is hot, keep your cat in the shade during the hottest part of the day. You can also use a cat-safe sunblock on their ears and nose. Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. An ear cleaner is often recommended as the mainstay of treatment if the ears have an obvious build-up of wax.

Where does an ear infection start in a cat?

Typically an ear infection starts at the outer part of a cat’s ear. From here, the middle and inner of a cat’s ear can become infected if the bacteria has spread. It’s potentially more serious than an outer ear infection as it’s covering a wider area and going deeper into the ear canal.

What kind of ear problems do cats have?

Common Ear Problems in Cats 1 Ear Mites. Ear mites are similar to fleas except worse, as they’re extremely tiny and about the size of a pin head. 2 Outer Ear Infection. 3 Inner Ear Infection. 4 Ear Polyps. 5 Less Complicated Types of Issues. 6 Allergies.

Is it normal for a cat to have otitis interna?

No. In fact, otitis interna is an unusual condition in cats and may signal an underlying abnormality in the anatomy of the ear or an imbalance in the immune system.

How can I tell if my cat has hearing loss?

Cats can compensate for early degrees of hearing loss, so sometimes their human companions are unaware of the problem until complete deafness occurs. Sharp eyes may spot symptoms, both early and late: Shaking head or clawing at ear (can be indicative of ear infection or mites.)

Why does my cat scratch his ear all the time?

Ear Mites. Ear mites are tiny parasites that like to live in and around cat ears. They are easily passed between cats and are most commonly diagnosed in kittens. Ear mites make cats shake their heads and scratch themselves around the ears, head and neck.

HGlick has rescued and placed stray cats for over 20 years and has personally kept ten rescue cats as pets over the years. Cat ear problems can change the way a cat behaves. A cat’s hearing is their best-developed attribute—they can hear higher-pitched sounds beyond the acute range of a dog.

How old can a cat be with ear cancer?

She is maybe 12-ish years old. I read somewhere that average cat lifespan is 14-16 years old. And, read somewhere else that middle ear tumors are more likely to be cancerous than not, with survival rate about 1 year after aggressive surgery. I am going to do a biopsy and talk to my vet more, but for the moment let’s assume it’s cancerous.

Why do kittens scratch their ears so much?

Although adult cats can be affected, ear mites are much more common in kittens, especially those who come from multi-cat environments like shelters and catteries. Cat ear mites are intensely itchy, and kittens often violently scratch one or both ears with their hind feet, sometimes causing small skin wounds around the base of the ears.

Why does my senior cat have trouble hearing?

If your feline senior citizen is having trouble with her balance or seems hard of hearing, she could be suffering with a middle ear problem or an underlying disease. Senior cats over 7 tend to develop such health issues because their immune systems are weaker than their younger counterparts’.

We’ve found four cat ear problems from ear mites in cats to malignant tumors and how to treat them. A tabby cat scratching his ears. Photography by Fscotto74/Thinkstock. Otitis is the medical term for inflammation of the ear. A common cause of otitis is a bacterial infection.

What do you need to know about Smelly Cat Ears?

A: Smelly cat ears are one of the most common symptoms of an ear infection. Every day, 1000’s of pet owners become aware that their cat has smelly ears. It’s easy to treat them. Here’s what you need to know:

What to do if your cat has ear mites?

However, if your cat does not have ear mites or if appropriate treatment for ear mites fails to rid your cat of the infection, further diagnosis may be necessary. The diagnosis starts with an examination not only of the ears but of the entire cat. This is because some of the causes of ear infections in cats can signal a systemic health problem.

How can you tell if your cat has an upper respiratory infection?

Discharge from eyes or nose indicates a possible upper respiratory infection. This can make your cat feel ill and stop eating. It may be contagious to other cats in your home. Your vet may recommend medications to help your cat recover faster. Ear debris or discharge might mean your cat has an ear infection or even parasites like ear mites.

What are the symptoms of an ear infection in a cat?

A cat will show his discomfort by scratching or pawing at his ear or shaking or tilting his head in the direction of the painful ear. Other symptoms to look for include: Black or yellowish discharge. Redness or swelling of the ear flap or ear canal.

What to do if your cat has otitis externa?

Therefore, if a cat develops otitis externa, and especially if it recurs, it is necessary to look for an underlying cause such as an ear mite infestation, an unusual shape of the ear canal, or a disease affecting the cat’s immune system. What is the prognosis?

“Normal cats are very resistant to ear infections.”. Normal cats are very resistant to ear infections. Therefore, if a cat develops otitis externa, and especially if it recurs, it is necessary to look for an underlying cause such as an ear mite infestation, an unusual shape of the ear canal or a disease affecting the cat’s immune system.

However, if your cat does not have ear mites or if appropriate treatment for ear mites fails to rid your cat of the infection, further diagnosis may be necessary. The diagnosis starts with an examination not only of the ears but of the entire cat. This is because some of the causes of ear infections in cats can signal a systemic health problem.

How can I tell if my cat has an ear infection?

Some cats show few signs of ear mite infection, but in most the mites produce a strong allergic response with intense itching. The skin linking the ear canals can become thickened, the cat will scratch at the ears and shake its head, and there will typically be a discharge from the ear with dark or black waxy material.

Why does my cat have a canker in his ear?

A cat’s ear canals join at a sharp right angle to the inner ear, making it easy for foreign bodies to get stuck. Grass seeds and mites are common culprits. Your vet will take a swab to confirm it’s canker and prescribe drops. If you want a natural alternative with no harmful chemicals, try witch hazel.

Some cats show few signs of ear mite infection, but in most the mites produce a strong allergic response with intense itching. The skin linking the ear canals can become thickened, the cat will scratch at the ears and shake its head, and there will typically be a discharge from the ear with dark or black waxy material.

Why does my cat have fleas in his ear?

You may see the actual flea or just dried blood, that appear as black, crumbly crusts. Ear Mites: ear mite infections are one of the most common health problems seen in cats. Ear mites are tiny parasites that live on the surface of the skin of the ear canal. They feed by piercing the skin.

You may see the actual flea or just dried blood, that appear as black, crumbly crusts. Ear Mites: ear mite infections are one of the most common health problems seen in cats. Ear mites are tiny parasites that live on the surface of the skin of the ear canal. They feed by piercing the skin.

How can you tell if your cat has an ear infection?

Cats are prone to bacterial and yeast infections on their outer ear, both of which present themselves in a form that looks similar to ear mites. The symptoms are generally the same as well, so if your cat has an outer ear infection, look for scratching, shaking of the head and scabs.

Ear Mites. Ear mites are tiny parasites that like to live in and around cat ears. They are easily passed between cats and are most commonly diagnosed in kittens. Ear mites make cats shake their heads and scratch themselves around the ears, head and neck.

What to do about chronic otitis in cats?

However, in some cases, surgery may be the best option. Chronic otitis is a disease of the ear canal of cats. Otitis can be classified as externa (of the outer ear canal alone), media (involving the middle ear), or interna (involving the inner ear and associated structures).

Can a cat have a problem with their ears?

Although most cats will go through life without experiencing a serious problem with their ears, owners should know that a variety of conditions—including congenital defects, infections, trauma and age-related changes—can be extremely painful and may compromise an animal’s hearing.

Are there any health issues for older cats?

Once treated for hyperthyroidism, cats usually return to normal fairly quickly. If the disease is detected and treated early on, the cat often lives for several more years. Untreated, it can damage other organs. Disease of the kidneys is one of the most common problems affecting middle-aged and older cats.

What causes feline vestibular disease in older cats?

We do not fully understand why feline vestibular disease occurs in many cases. Conditions such as middle- and inner-ear infections are common causes of the disease. Tumors are a less common cause but must be considered, especially in older cats.

Is it common for cats to lose their hearing?

For various reasons, hearing loss is common in cats of advanced age. Changes in the eyes. A slight haziness of the lens and a lacy appearance to the iris (the colored part of the eye) are both common age-related changes, but neither seems to decrease a cat’s vision to any appreciable extent.

What causes an older cat to circle around?

Occasionally an older cat gets an inner ear infection that will make them circle and also have a head tilt and abnormalities with their eyes. If that is the case, the prognosis can be much better. Occasionally a cat who has become blind suddenly will appear to be circling,…

Why is my cat walking around with an ear infection?

Indoor cat walking on hardwood floors. When an ear infection throws off a cat’s balance, it makes the cat appear wobbly and off-kilter. A cat with an ear infection might also exhibit nausea and lack appetite. Other signs of an ear infection include head tilt, head shaking and ear discharge.

Occasionally an older cat gets an inner ear infection that will make them circle and also have a head tilt and abnormalities with their eyes. If that is the case, the prognosis can be much better. Occasionally a cat who has become blind suddenly will appear to be circling,…

If the weather is hot, keep your cat in the shade during the hottest part of the day. You can also use a cat-safe sunblock on their ears and nose. Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. An ear cleaner is often recommended as the mainstay of treatment if the ears have an obvious build-up of wax.

Why does my cat have so much ear wax?

Usually, a cat produces a little ear wax, but those having an inflammation from allergies might produce more ear wax than normal. Other causes of ear wax build up could be ear infections and sadly, the wax buildup can cause other infections resulting in two problems to deal with.

Can a cat get an ear infection from a polyp?

Nasopharyngeal polyps grow within a cat’s middle ear or Eustachian tube. These polyps are benign and they might cause to develop middle ear infections in your cat. You may notice symptoms like loud breathing and nasal discharge. To diagnose a polyp in your kitty’s ear, a veterinarian would anesthetize your cat.

How do I know if my cat has an infection?

The first signs of infection are fever, inflammation, behavioral changes and abnormal bowel movements. These are strong indicators that your cat has an infection and that antibiotics are the best treatment.

What are the symptoms of ear infection in cats?

Symptoms of ear inflammation, or otitis , in cats include shaking the head and scratching at the ears. If the middle ear is affected, you may see neurological signs such as facial paralysis. This occurs because inflammation deep inside the ear affects the nerves in that area.

Do you know about otitis in cats?

  • and bad odor.
  • Causes. Otitis externa and otitis media can be caused by a variety of things.
  • Diagnosis. These two conditions can be diagnosed in several ways.

    How do you treat cats ear ache?

    Treating ear infections can be very tricky, especially if allergies are involved. Treatment will depend on the cause, nature, and severity of the ear infection. Your veterinarian will recommend the best treatment for your cat. Treatment may include: Antibiotic ointments, drops, sprays or creams for the ear.

    What to do if your cat has ear infection?

    Maintain a clean environment that will discourage the proliferation of ear mites and other potentially infectious agents. Routinely examine your cat’s ears for such signs of infection as swelling, discharge, discoloration and the collection of dirt and debris.

    What kind of ear infection does a cat have?

    Ear Infections in Cats (Otitis Externa) Infections of the external ear canal or outer ear caused by bacteria and yeast are common in dogs but not as common in cats. Outer ear infections are called otitis externa.

    How can I tell if my cat has ear problems?

    When your feline friend has ear problems, you may notice a much different kitty. Symptoms of ear problems in cats include pawing at the ears, sensitivity to touch, a large amount of cream colored, orange, dark brown, or black wax; hearing loss; head tilting or shaking; and loss of balance. The most common causes of ear discharge in cats include:

    How are feline ears related to hearing loss?

    Some feline ear abnormalities are genetically transferred from parents to offspring. Among these is an inherited condition known as “fold-ears,” in which the tip of a cat’s pinna is bent sharply either toward or away from the skull. This bizarre condition is not often associated with hearing loss.

    What are the symptoms of ear discharge in cats?

    Symptoms of ear problems in cats include pawing at the ears, sensitivity to touch, a large amount of cream colored, orange, dark brown, or black wax; hearing loss; head tilting or shaking; and loss of balance. The most common causes of ear discharge in cats include:

    How old is a 16 year old cat?

    By age 16 your cat’s physical and mental development is very much like that of an 80-year-old person. She has definitely slowed down physically (relative to her prime adult years)and may have developed a number of health problems.

    By age 16 your cat’s physical and mental development is very much like that of an 80-year-old person. She has definitely slowed down physically (relative to her prime adult years)and may have developed a number of health problems.

    What to do if your cat has ear problems?

    Common Ear Problems in Cats. The skin in affected areas can also become thickened, scaly and covered with crusts. Cats may also become systemically ill and even die in severe cases. To plan appropriate treatment, a veterinarian must examine skin scrapings under a microscope to identify the type of mite that is present.

    What should I do if my cat tipped his ear?

    1. First, prepare a hemostatic paste by mixing Kwik Stop with just enough lidocaine to make a thin paste. Have the mixture ready to apply as soon as the cat’s ear has been tipped. 2. Before tipping the cat’s left ear, examine both ears for ear mites, infection or debris. Treat as necessary. 3. Apply a sterile scrub to the left ear.

    We’ve found four cat ear problems from ear mites in cats to malignant tumors and how to treat them. A tabby cat scratching his ears. Photography by Fscotto74/Thinkstock. Otitis is the medical term for inflammation of the ear. A common cause of otitis is a bacterial infection.

    Cats are prone to bacterial and yeast infections on their outer ear, both of which present themselves in a form that looks similar to ear mites. The symptoms are generally the same as well, so if your cat has an outer ear infection, look for scratching, shaking of the head and scabs.

    Why does my cat have an ear tumor?

    In severe but rare cases your cat might need to get a surgery done. Ear tumors in cats are formed of blood clots mostly caused by over-scratching the ear. It might affect the earwax glands, bones, tissues, muscles or middle layers of the cat’s ear.

    Why does my cat have problems with his ears?

    Of course, cats can develop other problems that affect their ears, including inflammatory disorders, immune-mediated conditions, tumors and more. If you have concerns about the health of your cat’s ears (or any other body part!), make an appointment with your veterinarian.

    What should I do if my cat has an ear infection?

    Veterinarians diagnose middle and inner ear infections using a combination of a cat’s symptoms, a physical exam (including an ear exam) and x-rays, CT scans or MRIs of the affected areas. Treatment may include long term treatment with systemic antibiotics, topical medications and surgery.

    What happens to a cat’s temper as he ages?

    Even if he has been an angel his entire life and never scratched a soul, his temper will be shorter. If you have other animals in the household, you may notice them all undergoing behavioral changes. This is because animals develop a natural pecking order, and as your cat ages, his place in that order may change.

    Can a cat bite you in the ear?

    Cats who go outside or live in a multi-cat household are also at higher than average risk for trauma to their ears. Bites and scratches are often directed towards this area and can result in lacerations, punctures and other types of wounds that can subsequently become infected.

    Why does my cat have a haematoma in her ear?

    Common causes of this are ear infections or parasites such as fleas or ear mites. You can decrease the risk of haematoma formation by regularly checking your cat’s ears for signs of infection. These include a bad smell from the ears, skin redness when compared to the other ear, or discharge from the ear.

    What happens if your cat has an ear infection?

    Ear infections can become chronic and lead to deafness and facial paralysis. What Causes Ear Infections in Cats? Generally, unless your cat has picked up mites from another animal, ear infections are a secondary condition. That means they are actually the result of some other underlying medical problem.

    Ear Infections in Cats (Otitis Externa) Infections of the external ear canal or outer ear caused by bacteria and yeast are common in dogs but not as common in cats. Outer ear infections are called otitis externa. The most common cause of feline otitis externa is ear mite infestation.

    Common causes of this are ear infections or parasites such as fleas or ear mites. You can decrease the risk of haematoma formation by regularly checking your cat’s ears for signs of infection. These include a bad smell from the ears, skin redness when compared to the other ear, or discharge from the ear.

    Why does my cat have a foul smell in her ear?

    Ear mite parasites often cause a black ear discharge, whereas yeast infections cause the discharge to expel a foul smell. However, a cytology test will be required to properly identify the ailment and avoid treating the problem incorrectly.

    Is it possible for an indoor cat to get ear mites?

    The answer is: indoor cats don’t get ear mites unless they’ve been exposed to another animal with ear mites. Just because your cat has itchy, inflamed ears it doesn’t necessarily mean he has ear mites!

    Why does my cat have clear fluid in her ears?

    Well, often there is an increase in nasal discharge, but if she is sneezing, has ‘stuffy ears’, and eye discharge then it sounds like she may very well have an outbreak of her herpes which causes an upper respiratory infection. but her eyes and nose are clear. sorry for confusion.

    Why does my cat have grass in his ears?

    Cats, particularly those who go outdoors, sometimes get grass awns and other foreign bodies lodged in their ears. Cats with foreign bodies in their ears will usually shake their heads and paw at their ears.

    When to take your cat to the vet for ear mites?

    Infestation is most common among outdoor cats, whether they’re brawling or cuddling up affectionately. If ear mite infestation is suspected, the cat owner should seek veterinary care without delay.

    If your cat doesn’t tolerate their ears being examined or if extensive cleaning is needed, your vet might recommend giving your cat a mild sedative to help keep him comfortable. If parasites are the main cause, your vet will prescribe antiparasitic medications.

    Why are my cats ears crusty around the edges?

    His ear problems were noticed 2 days ago as he allows us to briefly pet him. He has interaction with two of our other cats and they share feeding dishes.About 6 weeks ago we had two baby racoons trapped and treated for mange and “septic arthritus”. They were living in our backyard and have now been re-released in our yard.

    When does the inner ear of a cat become inflamed?

    In some cats, the inner, hairless side of the ear can become inflamed and irritated after the application of certain ointments or medications. This inflammation, called contact dermatitis, can develop 1 to 7 days after starting a treatment.

    She is maybe 12-ish years old. I read somewhere that average cat lifespan is 14-16 years old. And, read somewhere else that middle ear tumors are more likely to be cancerous than not, with survival rate about 1 year after aggressive surgery. I am going to do a biopsy and talk to my vet more, but for the moment let’s assume it’s cancerous.

    What kind of ear does a cat have?

    One of those areas is their ears. Cats ears in particular are prone to injury and infection, both of which can occur to one of four parts of the ear: the pinnae (the ear atop of the head), the external ear canal, the middle ear and/or the inner ear.

    In some cats, the inner, hairless side of the ear can become inflamed and irritated after the application of certain ointments or medications. This inflammation, called contact dermatitis, can develop 1 to 7 days after starting a treatment.

    His ear problems were noticed 2 days ago as he allows us to briefly pet him. He has interaction with two of our other cats and they share feeding dishes.About 6 weeks ago we had two baby racoons trapped and treated for mange and “septic arthritus”. They were living in our backyard and have now been re-released in our yard.

    What does it mean when a cat has scabs on its ear?

    Ear edge dermatitis is a common condition in which the cat develops crusting along the ear margins.

    What should I do if my cat has wax in his ears?

    Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. An ear cleaner is often recommended as the mainstay of treatment if the ears have an obvious build-up of wax. Medicated ear drops may be prescribed to reduce inflammation, treat an infection, or kill certain mites.

    What kind of disease does an old cat have?

    Feline chronic renal failure (CRF) is another common disease in aging cats. The Feline CRF Information Center specifies this disease is progressive and terminal but partly manageable in the early stages.

    What causes inflammation of the ear in cats?

    The following is a list of the most common causes of ear problems diagnosed by veterinarians: Ear mites located in the external ear can cause swelling of the ear canal in cats. If mites are present, cats will scratch at their ears and shake their head, leading to or worsening inflammation.

    How can you tell if a cat has an ear infection?

    The symptoms – scratching and head shaking – are essentially the same, but if you look closely at the ears, you may notice some differences. Ear infections often cause a cat’s ears to become more red and swollen than do mite infestations, and the discharge from an infected ear tends to have a distinctly foul odor.

    Why does my cat scratch at his ears?

    While your cat may occasionally scratch at its ears to relieve a stray itch or irritation, excessive or persistent scratching can be a sign that your cat has a medical problem. If you spot an infection or trauma to the ears, either caused by disease or the itching itself, you should get the cat veterinary treatment.

    Why does my cat have a yeast infection in his ear?

    Causes of yeast infections are moisture trapped in the inner ear, food allergies or hormonal imbalances. Food allergies often manifest by skin irritation, and that irritation can make cat’s ears more susceptible to yeast infection. Hormonal imbalance compromises the immune system, making a cat more susceptible to opportunistic yeast infection.

    How do I check for cat ear problems?

    • this may lead to ear injuries.
    • Method 2 of 3: Recognizing Internal Ear Problems. Check for ear canal mite infections.
    • Method 3 of 3: Seeking Medical Help. Take your cat to the vet.

      Can Cat Live Without Ears?

      And this would be worthwhile considering since cats can live without ears and ear canals. These are not critical organs. He may need to be kept indoors due to hearing loss but if they can resect the cancer fully, then it can be curative. So, this is an option for your lad.

      Can a 17 year old cat have dental disease?

      Tara: In the article, she tells the story of a 17-year-old cat with advanced dental disease. The cat’s caretaker was reluctant to put the cat under anesthesia because of concerns about her general health … Thomas: After all, the kitty already had kidney disease and hyperthyroidism…